13th-16th century AD

Courageous Portuguese

 

At the end of the Middle Ages began on Long interested in marine navigation and enhance the rulers of some European countries. Most of Portugal and Spain. Both countries had up to 13 conflicts century Moorish expansion. After the victory of the Christian armies of Aragon, Navarre, Castile, Portugal and papal crusaders in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212, there has been significant turnover in Europe. Especially in Portugal and Spain, the development of the economy and craft lifted on a technical level, which enabled the realization of long-term plans for overseas discoveries, trade and colonization.
 

 
Why was the development of cruises and expeditions of discovery?

+ Arabs and Turks ruled the Middle East and the Mediterranean. In 1453 it was conquered Constantinople (now Istanbul), which restricted trade in favor of the Arabs and Turks.
        
+ Europe was plagued by wars scarcity of gold and silver.
       
+ With demand for spices and other luxury goods.
       
+ The desire to explore, conquer and dominate new territories and colonies.


Portuguese expansion - In 1411 Portugal concluded a temporary peace with Castile, which was a relatively trivial event, but allow power to turn elsewhere - to the North African Moorish city of Ceuta. In 1415 was conquered Ceuta, the Portuguese won the first colony outside Europe. Ceuta However, in 1437 the Moors conquered back. In the short time, however, the Portuguese understand that Africa is a rich country in ivory, gold, and other goods. Moorish domination prevented to reach the wealth of the African land. Finding solutions to circumvent the Moors offered a path to the sea. An enthusiastic sponsor of these plans was the third son of King John I of Portugal, Henry said "Navigator", he had considerable knowledge of the geography of the then known world as technical aids needed for navigation and navigation at sea. He organized the expedition in 1433 was circumnavigation of Cape Bojador, lying 26 degrees north latitude, which, it was believed that it downfaced who shall die in the heat. Another voyage in the 15th century contributed to the knowledge of the southern section of Africa and its wealth, it brought much sought after gold and profit. Pope Kalixtus III. in 1456 issued the bull and confirmed Portuguese privileged discovery of sea route to India.

In 1460, Henry "the Navigator" died, Portuguese, however, persisted in the development of sailing. They were driven by the hope that one day i will reach the southern tip of Africa, and so open the way to the unknown, the legendary rich and India. In the years 1475-79 cruise had time to stop, because war broke out with Castile. When in 1488 an experienced sailor and captain Bartolomeo Diaz discovered the legendary cape, which he called "Raging Mouse." Cape was King John II. renamed the "Cape of Good Hope."

Thus began the era of maritime discoveries.

Portuguese Colonial Empire *1415 - +1999

 


Portugal's colonial empire was global and longest lasting in history. Since the conquest of Ceuta in North Africa in 1415 after returning to the colony of Macao to China in 1999.

Portuguese sailors explored the coast of Africa since the early 15th century to find a sea route to India and get the benefit of the lucrative spice trade . Sailors have achieved significant successes. In 1488 Bartolomeo Diaz discovered the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama sailed in 1498 to India Kalikutu (now Kolkata ) . The storm has entered Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500 on the coast of present-day Brazil . A more sailors discovered Malaysia , China and even Japan . By the end of the 17th century Portugal gained colonies in Southeast Asia, Africa, America and India. Thus, Portugal became the world's commercial and naval power .

Colonies were used as base for smaller settlements , trading posts , and Christian mission somewhere in the area from Lisbon to Nagasaki as a fortress to protect trade routes .

From the 17th century the Portuguese colonies began to collapse , which was caused by the entry of the British, French and Dutch in overseas trade. The Portuguese gradually in wars and agreements lost most colonies outside Africa ( where he maintained a colony until 1975 ) and Brazil.

 

COLONY IN ATLANTIC

COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
                A BRIEF HISTORY

 

Madeira
        1419 -present
                Colonies 1580-1834 , 1834-1976 province , autonomous region 1976 - present

Azores

        1427 -present
                Discovered by the Portuguese in 1427 , the colony colonized from 1439 to 1766 . Under the administration of the captain 1766-1831 , 1831-1976 overseas province , autonomous region 1976 - present .

St. Helena

        1502- end of the 16th cent.

 

Colonies in Africa

COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
                A BRIEF HISTORY

 

Morocco
        half of the 15th cent. - half of the 17th cent.
                Ceuta captured 1415th Conquest of Tangier in 1471 , after the conquest of several other cities as Safi , El Jadida , Essaouira . Transmission Ceuta Spain 1668th

Arguim (now in Mauritania )

        1448-1633
                1448 built a fortress . Losses in the war with Holland to 1633.

Cape Verde

        1456-1975
                Survey eastern part in 1456, the rest of 1461. Settlement from the 1462nd Independent since 1975.

The islands : São Tomé and Príncipe

        1470-1975
                The discovery in 1470 of São Tomé and Príncipe discovered in 1472 . Historically, the first colonization of the 1493rd Settlement Príncipe 1500. 1641-1648 : Dutch domination . French domination in 1648 and from 1975 independence.

Bioko (now Equatorial Guinea )

        1474-1778
                Colonies about 1474. Dutch domination 1642 - 1648 , then recovered until 1778 , when Spain ceded .

Annobón (now Equatorial Guinea )

        1474-1778
                Discovered about 1474. Referral Spain, 1778th

Benin

        1486-1852
                Colonies 1486th Losing the war with the British in 1852 , then a British protectorate .

Ouadane (now Mauritania )

        1487 - 16th century .

Grande Comore

        1500-1505

Mombasa

        1500-1729
                Discovered by Vasco da Gama , 1498. Construction of Fort Jesus 1593rd Conquest of Oman in 1698 , back in the years 1728 to 1729 the Portuguese , then Oman .

Malindi (now a city in Kenya )

        1500-1630
                The discovery of Vasco da Gama , 1498.

Portuguese East Africa (now Mozambique )

        1502-1975
                The discovery of Vasco da Gama , 1498. Maputo founded in 1544 , occupied the interior of the 1885th German colonies in the north from 1917 to 1918 . The war for indepen 1964 - 1974 and 1975 independence recognized.

Zanzibar

        1503-1698
                Losing the war with Oman 1698th

Barawa (now a city in Somalia )

        1506-1758

Lamu (now a city in Kenya )

        1506-1698

Mogadishu

        1510-1698

Portuguese Gold Coast (now Ghana )

        1510-1680

Madagascar

        1500-1550
                Diogo Dias came to the island as the first European to 1500. Colony in 1506. Expelled natives to 1550.

Portuguese West Africa (now Angola )

        1483-1975
                Colonization 1575 founding of the city of Luanda 1576th Dutch conquest and domination from 1641 to 1648 . Appropriation of the interior in 2.pol.19 . cent. Independent since 1975.

Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea - Bissau )

        1446-1974
                Appeared and took Nuno Tristão 1446th Cacheu colony founded 1614. Bissau based 1753rd Both colonies joined together 1879th Independent since 1974.

Ziguinchor (now in Senegal )

        1645-1888
                Colonized 1645th Lost the war with France 1888th

Ouidah (now Benin)

        1680-1961
                Construction of the fortress in 1680 , he soon left . Construction of the new Fort São João Baptista d' Ajuda 1721 , which is occupied by natives in 1727 and 1728 to win back . Portuguese surrendered Fortress 1858. The rest of the territory was annexed by the natives in 1961 and 1975 annexation was recognized.

Portuguese Congo (now Cabinda )

        1883-1975
                Protectorate from 1883 and 1956 by the Angolan joint Governor General. Independence recognized in 1975 , but was annexed by Angola.

 

Colonies in America

COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
               
A BRIEF HISTORY
 

Labrador
        1498-1526
                Discovered in 1498 , the colony founded 1499th Portugal relinquished territorial claims by 1526.

Brazil

        1500-1822
                Discovered in 1500 , founding colonies 1530th In the years 1624-1654 the north occupied by the Dutch. Vicekrálovství 1714 and 1815 personal union with Portugal. Independent from the 1822nd

Barbados

        1536-1627
                Discovered and colonized by 1536. 1620 war for supremacy with England , France, Holland and Spain . Avoid England 1627th

Colonia do Sacramento (now in Uruguay )

        1680-1777
                Colonized in 1680 and then was occupied by Spain, the colony returned to Portugal in 1681. In the years 1705-1722 the Spanish- Argentine government. 1722 Portuguese . 1735 Spanish . Rise of Portuguese settlers , which the Spaniards suppressed militarily , 1762. 1763 : Portuguese again . Transmission colony of Spain 1777.

cisplatin (now Uruguay )

        1808-1822
                Avoid Portuguese 1808th Personal union with Portugal 1815-1822 , then independent.

French Guyana

        1809-1817
                Avoid the Portuguese during the Napoleonic Wars.
 

MIDDLE EAST

COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
                A BRIEF HISTORY

Gamrat (now Bandar Abbas )

        1506-1615
                Lost the battle with the Persians .

Socotra

        1506-1511
                Lost the battle with the Persians .

Hormuz

        1507-1622
                Conquest of the city and the construction of Fort de Nossa Senhora da Vitória of 1507. Everything is abandoned in 1508 . 1515 to retake the city , and there was built Fort de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Ormuz . Construction of another Fort de Queixome 1621st Persia by the English conquered the city 1622nd

Muscat

        1507-1650
                Vasco da Gama landed here and took territory on their way to India , 1498. Take the city of 1507. 1523 and 1526 were suppressed rebellion . In the years 1550-1552 it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1581 and the city destroyed . Rebuilding the Portuguese fort to 1588. Losing the war with Oman 1650.

Bahrain

        1521-1602
                Lost the war with Persia .

Şuḩār

        1507-1648
                Lost the war with Oman .

Súr

        1507-1648
                Lost the war with Oman .

Kurijat

        1507-1648
                Lost the war with Oman .
 

Colonies in India

COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
               
A BRIEF HISTORY

Lakshadweep

        1498-1545
                Lost after the revolt of natives.

Kochi

        1500-1663
                Avoid Pedro Alvares Cabral . Trading post founded in 1502 and in 1503 construction of the first ever European colonial forts in India , Fort Manuel . Here Vasco da Gama died in 1524. Losing the battle with the Dutch from 1663.

Goa

        1509-1961
                After the conquest of the settlement established Velha Goa 1509. Counterinsurgency 1512. Dutch attacks in 1603 and 1639 were repulsed. Indians in the years 1737-1739 had conquered almost the whole Gou , the arrival of the Portuguese fleet prevented the destruction . Panaji became the capital in 1759. Later, the surrounding occupied territories. Losing the battle with the British 1799-1813 , then again the Portuguese . Annexation and domination of India in 1961 , which is recognized by 1974.

Kozhikode

        1498-1664
                1498 : landed near the Vasco da Gama was the first European in India , 1498. The city was plundered in 1507 and the conquest of 1510. Construction of the fortress Fortaleza de Diu 1512. Monopoly on the spice trade acquired in 1540. Lost the war with the Dutch from 1663 to 1664 .

Chittagong

        15281666
                Lost the battle with the Dutch .

Bombay

        1530-1661
                Portuguese sacked the city in 1530 and 1531st The area was in 1534 transferred to the Portuguese. Losing the war with the English East India Company 1661.

island Sallsette

        1534-1737
                Lost after the revolt of natives.

Diu

        1535-1961
                Conquered 1535. With the permission of the Sultan was built strength and concluded an alliance against the Mughal empire. Prevent India 1961. Indian domination was recognized by the Portuguese 1974.

island Surat

        1540-1612
                The city was captured and destroyed by the Portuguese in 1540 , was later built a fortress . Lost the battle with England by 1612.

Maldives

        1558-1573
                Lost after the revolt of natives 1573rd

Damão

        1534-1961
                The Portuguese destroyed the fort of 1534. Conquered the city in 1559 and since 1588 has been part of the colony of Portuguese India . Another area acquired 1614. Annexation of India 1961. Indian domination recognized by Portugal 1974.

Mangalore

        1505-1763
                Construction of strength 1505. Submissions Mangalore to 1565. The construction of a new fort 1568. City burned by Arabs 1695. Portuguese city rebuilt and in 1763 they were expelled Indians.

Dadra

        1779-1954
                Appropriation of the 1779th Loss of the nationalist revolution , 1954.

Nagar Haveli

        1779-1954
                Conquered 1779th Lost after the coup , 1954.

Kannur

        1502-1663
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Kollam

        1502-1661
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Nagapattinam

        1507-1657
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Pullicat

        1518-1610
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Chaul

        1521-1740
                Loss after rioting natives.

Cranganore

        1523-1661
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

São Tomé de Meliapor

        1523-1737
                Loss after rioting natives.

Baçaím

        1534-1739
                Loss after rioting natives.

Thoothukudi

        1548-1658
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Hugli

        1579-1632
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

Machilipatnam

        1598-1610
                Losing the war with the English East India Company .

 

Colonies in East Asia

 COUNTRY
        holding FROM - TO
               
A BRIEF HISTORY

Malaka (now a city in Malaysia )

        1511-1641
                The first to enter the city in 1509 and 1511 was taken. Losing the battle with the Dutch 1641.

Moluccas

        1512-1861
                Banda Islands 1512-1621 and 1521-1609 Ambon , both lost the battle with the Dutch . 1513-1575 Ternate and Bacan 1513 - 1861 , lost after rising natives.

Sund Islands

        1512-1861
                Adenara , Alor , Lemba, Pantar 1520 ? and Solor in 1556 , all the Dutch handed over to 1861. Flores Makassar 1570-1861 and 1512-1665 , after losing battles with the Dutch .

Ceylon

        1505-1658
                Lourenço de Almeida arrived 1505. Colombo conquered and building forts 1517. Losses in the war with the Dutch from 1656 to 1658 .

Ningbo (now in China)

        1533-1545
                Settlement construction in 1542 , which was destroyed by the Chinese in 1545 . In the years 1540-1549 were evicted settlers .

Macao

        1516-1999
                Macao based business with a mission station in 1553. Portuguese administration to Chinese rule 1557th Establishment of the office of Governor 1680th The Declaration of Independence Macao , 1849. China recognized the right of ownership of Portugal , 1887. Japanese protectorate from 1943 to 1945 . Macao was Chinese territory administered by Portugal 1976. Transmission and integration in the People 's Republic of China 1999.

Nagasaki

        1542-1638
                Japan achieved 1542nd Construction of commercial stations 1571. The artificial island was built Dedžima of 1634. 1637 uprising and the 1638 expulsion of the Portuguese.

Portuguese Timor

        1512-2002
                1640 was the western part of the Dutch colonized . The capital moved to Delhi in 1769 . Independence in 1975 , then was annexed by Indonesia . Since 1999, under UN administration in Portugal. Recognized the independence of 2002.

Ships

Photo-Video Gallery: Courageous Portuguese

 

Caravel - commercial and warship was used by the 13th century in the Mediterranean, mainly in Genoa and Venice. From 14 century it was used by other countries, such as Portugal and Spain, in its research cruises along Africa, India and America. Caravel was known for high speed, the ability to tack and sail against the wind. Its basis was the construction of fishing boats and Arabic design elements rig. Karavela usually had three masts, boats smaller then the second She was fitted with either Latin sails, this ship is called "Latin", or dressed up was a combination of rectangular and one Latin sail, this version is called "Redonda" and developed her northern Portuguese. The most famous "Latin" PINTA is a famous "Redonda" is Nina, both of the voyage of Christopher Columbus. This type of boat was only rarely longer than 20 meters, a crew of 20-30 sailors. Name the type of ship was derived from the Greek word karabos, meaning a small boat. As the ship was much like Karachi, so both types of ships ever wrong. Caravel is sometimes considered a minor or an older type of carak. Also, you may encounter information that the largest ship voyage of Christopher Columbus SANTA MARIA is known as the caravel, even if it is the carak.

Carak - used from 14 century in the Mediterranean in Genoa and Venice. During the 15th century Karak already built most European shipyards, including Portuguese and Spanish. Karaka was big, heavy and bulky business or warship with high sides and large capacity, a model structure was Kogyo. She had up to four decks, fore and aft deck into the high paced body-Kastel. In good sailing wind speeds up to 10 knots / hour. (18 km / h). Karaka was at the helm ligament control simple system of levers. The helmsman seen through the sail on the way, so while sailing off the coast of controlled instructions given by him on patrol castelet or mast. Karak had good cannon armament.

Construction - Karak were pines or oaks. Nails were used only in the most stressed areas such as neck front and back neck. Although the hull was carefully wiped pitch or tar, the ship is constantly leaking. This caused the decay and shortened the life of the ship. Not to mention what was in store. In such a ship is well managed mildew, algae and marine sášni (Teredo navalis), molluscs impairing the structure of the wooden hull. Therefore the ship after several months of sailing pulled ashore and treated. Also, at each stop supplement supplies of wood and resin. Karaka had pretty high center of gravity, so it was empty at sea shaky, rocking and it was harder to handle. Sailors solved it curiously: after unloading loaded as stones, as follows laden ship was stable and controllable.

Name - "Carak" is the Spanish word comes from the Arabic in which it was borrowed from Greek. Portuguese Carak called nau (nao) and the French caravel. Generally, in the Middle Ages for the caravel, considered minor or an older type of Karak. Today we know that there is a difference between Karak and caravels. The cause confusion of the name was the fact that medieval ship had no actual building plans and have not been standardized. Therefore, each ship actually original, based on a personal approach and taste shipbuilders. During the 16th century shipbuilders Karak better, to have developed a powerful type of ship, galleon.

The crew - were it not only experienced sailors, but mostly convicts and adventurers. Operation required considerable physical strength and sailors over 35 years old were considered old. The captain had to be a man of iron will and strict to cruel nature, if you had the crew to maintain the respect and obedience. It was, of course, when most men were convicts. Salaries were small, but the crew had free food and the right to carry a part of his own goods which freely traded.

 

Photo-Video Gallery: Courageous Portuguese

TYPE/NAME SHIP

Caravel

Latina

Caravel

Redonda

Carak

Nau,Nao

COMMON IN THE CENTURY

13th-15th AD

14th-15th AD

14th-16th AD

LENGTH ON A WATERLINE

10-20 m

10-20 m

30-40 m

RATIO OF WIDTH TO LENGTH

1/3

1/3

1/3

WIDTH

5-7 m

5-7 m

10-14 m

HEIGHT OF HULL AND A DRAUGHT

4-6 m/2-3 m

4-6 m/2-3 m

8-10 m/4-5 m

WEIGHT OF THE SHIP

 

 

 

PAYLOAD

50-100 tons

50-100 tons

800-1000tons

DISPLACEMENT

 

 

 

MAX. KNOTS SPEED

7-8 knots

7-8 knots

7-9 knots

PAIR OF OARS/MEN AT THE OARS

X

X

X

NUMBER OF CREW MEMBERS

20-30

20-30

30-50

NUMBER OF THE CANNONS S/H/B

0/6-10/0

0/6-10/0

0/10-16/0

CALIBRE OF THE CANNONS

?

?

?

USUALLY NUMBER OF THE MASTS

3

3

3

HEIGHT OF THE MAIN MAST

15-18 m

18-25 m

20-35 m

NUMBER AND TYPE OF THE SAILS

 L/J/S M + M J B

1L/1L/1L

1L/1S/1S

1L/2S/1S+1B

TOTAL SIZE SAILS

180

340

450

ATTRACTIONS

 

 

Boat dull finish off the rear of the mirror.

 

Photo-Video Gallery: Courageous Portuguese