Famous captains and heroes

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Pedro Alvarez Cabral (* 1467? - +1526?) - Portuguese navigator and captain. The maternal relatives was the first Portuguese King Alfonso I. He was also an experienced sailor and had great knowledge in maritime navigation. These two things have contributed to the fact that King Manuel I. Cabral chose as a worthy successor to Vasco da Gama. After returning da Gama from India March 13, 1500 was dispatched Cabral's fleet of thirteen ships to India, with more than 1,200 men. There should consolidate the power of the Portuguese crown, trade and the spread of Christianity. Captains on some of the ships were Bartolomeo Diaz, Nicolau Coelho and others. The Cape Verde storm lost one ship. With the information da Gama use on the road favorable winds, now known as the "trade winds". They wanted to avoid protisměrnému sea current, later discovered "Gulf Stream". They sailed in an arc to the west. South currents pushed the fleet even more to the west, and on April 22 saw the ground where he landed the next day. April 25 moored south and the belief that it is an island country called "Ilha da Vera Cruz" (Island of the True Cross), erected a cross and served Mass, which the island became the property of the King of Portugal. (It is interesting that this cross is kept in Braga in Portugal and in 1960 he was loaned to Brazil to celebrate the founding of the capital). Later found out that it is not an island, but on the mainland and renamed it to "Terra da Santa Cruz (Holy Cross Country)". After the discovery and prevent the country sent Cabral 1 May 1500, a ship with news of a new country to Portugal. May 3 expedition continued its voyage to India through the Cape of Good Hope, where the storm sank four ships, one of them was Bartolomeo Diaz. The remaining 7 vessels in July landed at Mozambique and Aug. 2 at Melinda, where they managed to get a guide. Further down the road on Aug. 10 storm accidentally discovered in Madagascar. September 13 finally reaching India. You are not welcome here and there to fight the Arabs. Ruler of the neighboring port city of Cochim Portuguese received friendly and concluded with an agreement on trade, including the establishment of trading posts and missions. This was the task of the expedition met. January 16, 1501 with a fleet of Cabral set sail for the return trip and landed in Lisbon on June 23 only 4 ships. In 1502 was made another voyage to India, Cabral, however, refused to participate with the fact that he does not want anyone to share command of the fleet. In 1526 he died and was buried in Santarém.



James Cook (October 27, 1728 at Marton York - February 14, 1779 Hawaii) - extremely important navigator, explorer and researcher, his published work significantly shifted the knowledge of the country. From the age of thirteen he worked as a lifeguard at a coal ship. At that time educating himself in maritime practice. In 1755, he joined the Navy as a helmsman. In 1759 he took part in voyages to North America to war with France. Then precisely mapped the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, so from 1763 continued the mapping of Newfoundland and Labrador.

The first voyage (1768-1771).

The second voyage (1772-1775).

Third voyage and death (1776-1779).

James Cook is credited among other things, to improve personal hygiene (at that time was a miracle when someone washed 2 times per month) and the inclusion of fruit and vegetables in the ship's diet to prevent diseases, especially scurvy (this discovery was made independently of the practice of East Asian navies that the problem of scurvy and vitamin C deficiency resolved in the 14th century).



Hernán Cortés, 1 Marquis del Valle de Oajaca (also Hernando, Fernán, Fernado Cortez *? .1485 - +2. Dec. 1547) - was the most famous Spanish conquerors (conquistadores) America. In the years 1499-1501 he studied law. Since 1504 he lived on the island of Hispaniola to Haiti, where he took part in expeditions against the Indians. In 1511, accompanied by the governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, the later Cortés appointed mayor of Santiago de Cuba. After the discovery of Yucatan in 1519 Cortés Velázquez convinced that under his leadership, sent an expedition that was stopped at the last minute and Cortés had to be arrested. He had a fleet of 11 ships, about 160 sailors, 600 soldiers, 200 slaves or servants under the command of Captain Antonio de Alaminos sailed to the Yucatan Peninsula. After landing recharge Tabasco and Indians acknowledged the supremacy of Spain. They learned about the gold Aztec empire. 20th April Cortés landed near Tenochtitlan. He was considered the son of the sun god and Montezuma II. is warmly received. Cortés founded the settlement of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, it was the first settlement on the continent (now Veracruz) and the army elected him judge and Captain General. He ordered to burn 10 ships and one ship sent July 26, 1519 report to Spain. Later in the interior combined with Tlaxcalany and Totonaky who accepted Spanish rule and peacefully entered into Tenochtitlan. Cortés here captured Montezuma II., He acknowledged the supremacy of Spain, Cortés became the ruler of Mexico. In 1520 against Governor Velázquez sent troops about 2,000 men, led by Pamfila de Navaez. Cortés is assaulted, kidnapped and most of Navaezových men passed the Cortes side. During his absence in Tenochtitlan uprising. The army of about 12,000 men, most of whom were from Tlaxcala, and went to help his crew. July 2, 1520, after heavy losses forced to retreat from Tenochtitlan. After winning a fight in Outumbském in Tlaxcala valley formed and completed the Army and 13 August 1521 conquered Tenochtitlan. He captured the new emperor Cuauthémoca (incorrectly Guatimozin). In 1522 Charles V. Cortés was appointed governor, supreme judge, and supreme commander of New Mexico. Use the Franciscans and Dominicans monks spread Christianity and organization of the country. In 1524-1526 led a military expedition to Honduras.

Meanwhile, in Spain Cortés slandered and accused of separation Mexico. He was sent to the emperor's official verification of such "speech", Alfonso de Estrada. The one with Cortés acted politely. Cortés in 1528 he went to Spain. Here he met with Emperor Charles V. and provided proof of their loyalty to the crown. Charles V granted him the title of Marquis del Valle de Oajaca and gave him large tracts of land in Mexico. In 1529 he was appointed commander of the army. Cortés took another trip to Panama and North America, and in 1536 discovered California peninsula. In 1541 he took part in the expedition to Algeria. He died in Spain in Seville and was buried in the Church of Jesus of Nazareth in Mexico.