Anchors

 

An anchor is a word that man subconsciously arouses a sense of security and peace. Why? I do not know. Likewise, do not know how and who invented the first anchor or anchor stone rather tied to the leather belt. In any event, the impetus for the creation of anchors keep Lodice the desired location on the river flowing to the crew was conveniently located for hunting. And also for "parking" on the shore, where there was no vegetation for tethering Lodice. With the development of shipbuilding and its weight was of course also need to produce anchors appropriate size and weight. This began to practice from the 18th century.

A few more attractions.

The Vikings were the first to die for ships mooring rope.

From the beginning of the Lodice could one anchor. At the time of the overseas discoveries on ships used two anchors and at times was even one in reserve. In the 18th century Admiralty lay down rules about the number of anchors to ship: 2 main, 1 backup, 1 auxiliary and supply of 4 main and 2 backup. This Regulation, with minor changes, still used today.

Description of historical and modern anchors:

1 = anchor ring, 2 = anchor bolt circle, 3 = crosspiece (fixed or moving the pin),

4 = stem, 5 = leaves, 6 = arm (fixed or mobile), 7 = neck

 

This stone with the belt of the Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic eighth to fifth millennium BC) historians consider to be one of the first anchors.

This stone anchor has worked to belt or rope slipping. It dates from the early Stone Age (Neolithic 6th - half of the 4th millennium BC).

Precision machining Chinese stone anchors with wooden crossbeam of 3.tisíciletí BC It was found in 1977 during excavations in southern China. Thanks to the cross member is very well stuck to the bottom. This anchor is considered the first prototype of the admiral's anchor. In Europe, this type of anchor invented and used to the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans in the 9th-7th century.

Egyptian stone anchor from the 3rd millennium BC, found near Abu sulfur. Similarly modified anchor stones used also Mesopotamians, Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and others.

Anchor basket of wicker, raffia, rope and a leather bag filled with stones, used more on the rivers. It was possible to change the weight of the anchor. The finding comes from the second millennium BC in Mesopotamia.

Functional anchor of 2 millennium BC have been found in the Thames. Same or similar prehistoric hunters used throughout northern Europe. One such was found in 1740 in Quebec. This indicates the presence of Europeans + -3000 years before Leif Eriksson sailed here in 992.

Such functional anchor of the 1st Millennium BC the archaeologists found in the Baltic Sea.

This functional anchor of the 1st Millennium BC was found in the Arctic Ocean.

With the development of shipping the boats grew larger and the need for them to be larger and heavier anchors. The anchor comes from Egypt from about 700 BC It was equipped with auxiliary cables for ease of installation and pulling the anchor.

Anchoring hooks made ​​of hard wood and bronze fittings. A: Hook of 2 Millennium BC from the Indian Ocean. B: Phoenician hook from the 7th century BC found in the eastern Mediterranean, C: Arabian hook of 4 century BC found in the Persian Gulf.

Anchor type hook is not always stuck to the bottom. It was resolved transom mounted at the bottom. The anchor of hard and heavy wood from the 9th century BC found in the Mediterranean Sea near Greece. It was about 80 cm long and 5-10 kg heavy.

Anchor Japanese sailors from the 8th century BC She hardwood and laterally tethered stones. It was about 70-100 cm long and 5-20 kg heavy.

Anchor Greek and Roman sailors from the 9th-7th century BC Crossbeam was placed above the jam in the bottom guaranteed. Similar anchors were found in the Mediterranean Sea. It was about 1 m long and 10-20 kg heavy.

Anchor from the 8th-7th century BC It was made ​​of hard wood, iron and slain crossbeam was cast from lead. Used by the Etruscans and later the Romans. Type for the admiral's anchor, which is more than 16 centuries ago invented by the Chinese. The anchor was found in Nemijském lake in Italy. It was about 110 cm long and 10-25 kg heavy.

The anchor was about the 2nd century BC in China during the reign of the first emperor Qin Shi Huang-ti, Chinese: Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇 帝 (real name Zheng (Zheng, ) of the Qin Dynasty. With minimal modifications used yet. This anchor was found in the southern part of China sea.

The growing power and influence of the Roman Empire is reflected in the quality and workmanship of anchors. Anchor the 1st century AD, was cast in bronze, later forged iron. Lead cross member was removable for better compactness of the ship. The second rope for easier removal. It was about 110 cm long and + -30-50 kg heavy.

The anchor of Indonesia and Oceania was used from the end of the first Millennium BC until today, when it is forced out modern metal anchors. The stem was made ​​of hard wood were fastened on him stones and branches; hooks. It was all tied fibers from vines or coconuts. It was about 50 cm long and 2-5 kg ​​heavy.

Iron anchor Viking blacksmith masters. It was used in addition to anchoring and hooking the enemy ship. Anchor with four arms from the 4th-21st century AD, Were 50-100 cm long and 3-15 kg heavy. It is still used on smaller recreational boats.

Grapnel anchor the Viking (grab or cat) with six arms from the 10th-16th century AD. It was also used Hanseatic fleet. Were forged 50-100 cm long and 5-20 kg heavy.

This anchor from the years 1405-1433 is the Chinese Dragon fleet of Admiral Zheng He (Chinese: Zheng He, 郑 和, 郑 和), during the reign of Emperors Jung-le (Chinese: Yongli, 永乐, 永乐) and Xuan-te (Chinese: Xuande , 宣德, real name: Chan Chi Zhu (Zhu Zhan, 朱瞻基)) of the Ming dynasty.

Norman anchor from the 8th-15th century, used by fleets of northern Europe, including the Hanseatic League. She was found near the Swedish Flensburg in 1863. Other archaeologists found in 1904 in Tonsberg, Norway in decaying 25-meter Drakkar with very well-preserved anchor. There were about 80-110 cm long and 20-50 kg heavy.

At the end of the 17th century AD, appeared admiral anchor, used perhaps in all of Europe and later outside the European ships. The stem was as long as the beam and 3x longer than one arm. Dimensions were 1-2 m long and 40-100 kg heavy.

During the 19th century there were major changes known as the Industrial Revolution, which culminated at the turn of the 20th century. It was invented by the cast that was lighter, stronger, more flexible and replaced wrought iron. In 1821, Hawkins suggested that anchor with movable arms without crossbar.

Rogers cast anchor with movable transom for better storability of 1830. Anchor length was 110-262 cm and a weight of 75-1000 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

In 1840 W.Parker invented the admiral's anchor. Crossbar be ensured before starting pin. When storing the folded and hung pulling along the shaft for a bent portion. Anchor length was 110-262 cm and a weight of 75-1000 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship. These 80 kg anchors used CSLA Corps of Engineers in ensuring pontoon bridges on the rivers. It is still used.

In 1846 was successfully tested Trotmannova anchor. It was used in the early 20th century. The arms rotate on the pin and the crossbeam was moving for better storability. Anchor length was 102-378 cm and a weight of 75-3000 kg (yes 3 t), depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

In 1875, the designer was inspired by Martin Hawkins anchor from 1821 and built its own anchor. The arms are rotatable and flat transom is massive. They were used until the end 1.sv.války they were completely replaced Hall anchor. Anchor length was 80-323 cm and a weight of 75-6000 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

At the turn of the 20th century been proposed Marell's anchor. Leaves were too large area and anchor broke. Therefore remained the only proposal.

Admiral of the United Kingdom Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield (* March 27, 1820 - +4. September 1894) at the end of the 19th century suggested that the Inglefield's anchor (often says the wrong name Ingelfield's!). They were used until the end 1.sv.války they were completely replaced Hall anchor. Anchor length was 80-323 cm and a weight of 75-6000 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Matrosov anchor is the most common squirrel in the Russian Navy. It was designed and used before WW2 and it is still used. Anchor length was 80-430 cm and weight 75 kg-20 tons, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Hall's anchor is a modern and technically most advanced anchor used by 30s of the 20th century yet. Anchor length was 80-860 cm and weight 75 kg-80 t (this is approximately 75 cars Skoda Fabia), depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Of interest:

15-ton anchor with a length of 548 cm was TITANIC.

The largest transport ship Hōei MARU on board three 80-ton anchors and propellers with a diameter of 12 meters.

State of the art anchor the Flipperdelta. Anchor length is 80-790 cm and weight 75 kg-75 tons, depending on the size and displacement (weight) ships.

 

 

Anchor for small recreational sailboats and yachts. This is a variation of the anchor hook. Anchor length is 30-100 cm and weight 2-10 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Anchor type sponge for smaller recreational sailboats and yachts. Diameter anchors 30-50 cm and weight 5-10 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship. For better storability can unscrew the shaft.

Another variant of mushroom anchors for small recreational sailboats and yachts. Diameter anchors 30-50 cm and weight 5-10 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Danforth's anchor for small recreational sailboats and yachts, is the most widespread and most commonly used on yachts anchor. Anchor length is 30-160 cm and weight 6-25 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Anchor for small recreational sailboats and yachts. This is a variation of the anchor hook. Anchor length is 30-110 cm and weight 6-15 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship.

Modern Viking excluding masonry anchor, or grapnel for small recreational sailboats and yachts. Anchor length is 30-110 cm and weight 6-15 kg, depending on the size and displacement (weight) of the ship. For better performance, space-saving folding the arms.

 

 

Lashing anchor (a sea anchor, etc.) was the invention of Australian sailors and fishermen. It was and is mainly used for severe storms. Below is a diagram of how it works.

Option tether anchor shank with planks. Largest board were at the end. In an emergency, can be successfully used as a parachute anchor, potato sack, etc. However, it must be ensured by means of crossed poles Open mouth bags or parachute.

How does the tether anchor (sea anchor):

1 = ship in the storm safely turns the wind behind the anchor, 2 = wind,

3 = beam anchor rope, 4 = anchor buoy maintained at the desired depth,

5 = ocean currents, 6 = rope to pass, 7 = anchor is hauled ocean currents